April 28, 2012

Butterflies Day 4 -Butterfly vs. Moth

Butterfly vs. Moth
1. Discuss: Show the children a picture of a butterfly and a moth. Do you see any differences between the two?  There are four major differences between moths and butterflies.
  • Butterflies are often more colorful than moths because butterflies are active during the day. Moths are active at night and have earthy colors to camouflage them while they sleep during the day.
  • Most butterflies have club-shaped antennae or antennae with knobs on the end while a moth’s antennae are feather-like or taper to a point.
  • Moths have a thicker coating of scales than butterflies, giving them a furry appearance. These heavy scales help keep them from losing heat during the night when they are most active.
  • Butterflies grow a chrysalis and moths spin a cocoon.
Butterflies and moths have some similarities too.  They are both insects which mean that they both have 3 body parts, six legs, and hatch from eggs.

2. Read: What's the Difference Between a Butterfly and a Moth by Robin Koontz
3. Comprehension questions:
What are the 4 differences between butterflies and moths?
  • Butterflies are often more colorful than moths because butterflies are active during the day. Moths are active at night and have earthy colors to camouflage them while they sleep during the day.
  • Most butterflies have club-shaped antennae or antennae with knobs on the end while a moth’s antennae are feather-like or taper to a point.
  • Moths have a thicker coating of scales than butterflies, giving them a furry appearance.
  • Butterflies grow a chrysalis and moths spin a cocoon.
What are some similarities between butterflies and moths?
  • Both are insects.
  • Both have six legs.
  • Both have 2 pair of wings.
  • Both hatch from eggs.
Butterfly Suckers
I found these butterfly suckers in the Easter clearance at the store so I got them for a fun treat.
Butterfly Adjectives
An adjective is a describing word. Ask the children what words describe a butterfly? Use adjectives to create an acrostic poem about butterflies.

Create an acrostic poem using the beginning letters of the word “butterfly”.

Butterfly vs. Moth Venn Diagram
  • 2 hoola hoops
  • note cards
  • markers
  1. Write one trait on each note card.
  2. Write "butterfly" one one note card and "moth" on one.
  3. Place the hoola hoops on the floor overlapping each other to form a Venn Diagram.
  4. Place the "butterfly" note card in one hoola hoop and the "moth" note card in the other.
  5. Have the child place each of the trait cards in the appropriate hoops.
  • six legs
  • body is thick and looks hairy
  • body is thin and doesn't look hairy
  • compound eyes
  • head, thorax, abdomen
  • two pairs of wings
  • makes a cocoon
  • makes a chrysalis
  • hatches from an egg
  • two antennae
  • mouth is a proboscis
  • usually active at night
  • usually active during the day
  • is an insect
  • usually brightly colored
  • usually colored in earth-tones
  • antennae are often thick and feathery
  • antennae are club-shaped at the end
  • undergoes complete metamorphosis
Identifying a Butterfly
We found a dead butterfly and tried to look at the traits with a magnifying glass and microscope.  We decided that because of the bright colors and knobs on the antennae that it was a butterfly and not a moth.

Do You See the Difference?
We used pages 18 and 19 of Do You See the Difference to review some of the differences between butterflies and moths.

Locating a Host Plant
  • 4 jams of the same color- These 4 can have different textures as long as they are all close to the same color. Some can even be the same flavor as long as the texture is different.
  • 2 small paper plates
  • 1 toothpick
  • Lots of paper towels
1. Set out two small paper plates and a tooth pick for every child.
2. Assign a number to each of the four jams.
3. Write the numbers for each of the four jams on one of the child’s plates.
4. Place a small amount of each jam next to its number on the plate.
5. Write the name of one of the jams on the second plate and place a small amount of that jam on it.  This will be the host jam.

In Class:
6. Explain that once a butterfly has mated the female will carefully search for the correct food plant for her eggs and caterpillars. Butterflies are very picky about where they lay their eggs because each species of butterfly caterpillar only eats specific kinds of plants. These plants are called “host plants.” The female butterfly instinctively recognizes the leaf shape, color, odor, taste, texture, and appearance of her species’ host plant.
7. Write the ways a butterfly recognizes a host plant on the board. color, odor, taste, texture, and apperance
8. Tell the children that the labeled jam on their plate is their “host” jam. Tell them to pretend that they are butterflies and that their baby caterpillars will only be able to eat the right host jam. Students should find their “host” jam on the second paper plate.
9. Tell them to first observe their “host” jam and to list the observations on their index card.
10. Encourage students to use their senses to determine which mystery jam is their “host” jam.
11. When they think they have figured out which of the 4 mystery jams is their “host” jam they should write down the number of that jam on their index card.
12.  When the children are done reveal what the host jam number is.
13. For each of the 4 “host” jams go around the room and ask what senses the kids used to determine their host jam and what their observations were about their jam.
14. Explain that this is what a butterfly must go through when trying to find its host plant.

Fun Fact: The criterion for selecting a mate is different from one species to another. Some species of butterflies and moths will perform ritual dances in the air or on leaves. A female may judge a male’s strength and vigor by how well he follows her complicated aerial dance.

Butterfly Math Coloring
We finished off our study with a Butterfly Mach Coloring page to review some addition facts.

Butterflies Day 3 -Butterfly Anatomy

Butterfly & Moth Anatomy
1. Discuss: Explain that butterflies and moths are both insects. The order that they belong to are called Lepidoptera. Like other insects, butterflies and moths have three major body sections, a head, a thorax, and an abdomen. Ask the children if they have those three body sections. Have the children put their hands on their heads. What do we have on our heads? Have the children point to their eyes, nose, ears, mouth, and hair. What do butterflies and moths have on their heads? eyes, antennae and proboscis
Butterflies and moths have two eyes. People have two eyes too but each of our eyes only has one lens. This means we only see one picture. Butterflies and moths have hundreds of lenses on each eye. This means that they see lots of little pictures. This kind of eye is called a compound eye. The children can look through kaleidoscopes to see what it looks like to have a compound eye. This is how a butterfly sees the world.
Butterflies and moths have two antennae between their eyes. They use their antennae to feel and smell. What do we use to feel and smell? hands and nose Insects do not have hands (to touch) and noses(to smell) like we do, so they use their antennae. 
Butterflies and moths have a different kind of mouth. Their mouth is called a proboscis. The proboscis is a long straw-like tube that unrolls from the head when the butterfly needs to take either food or water.
Where do you think our thorax is? Have the children put their hands on their chest. This is our thorax. What is attached to a butterfly’s or a moth’s thorax? legs  Butterflies and moths have six legs we have 2 legs.
Butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) have four wings. The top two are called the fore wings and the bottom two are called the hind wings. Each wing is covered in thousands of colorful scales. The colors and patterns on their wings are always symmetrical. This means that each wing is a mirror image of the other. Hold out your hands with your palms up. Now look at your hands side by side. Your hands are symmetrical. Place the palms of your hands together. See how your fingers line up perfectly together. This is how butterfly wings line up when they come together. 
Where do you think your abdomen is? Have the children hold their stomach below their belly button. This is your abdomen. An insect’s abdomen is usually long. Just like our abdomen, a butterfly’s abdomen contains the stomach, helps produce baby butterflies, and gets rid of waste.

2. Read: Waiting for Wings by Lois Ehlert

3. Comprehension questions:
  • What are the 3 body parts of a butterfly (and all insects)? Head, Thorax, Abdomen
  • What are the butterflies eyes called that are made up of many hexagonal lenses so that they see lots of little images? Compound eye
  • What do butterflies use to see and smell? Antennae
  • What is a butterflies mouth called? Proboscis
  • How many legs do butterflies have (and all insects)? Six
  • What are the two wings on the top called? Forewings
  • What are the two bottom wings called? Hindwings
Eating Like a Butterfly
Butterflies and moths drink their liquid food through a proboscis. The proboscis is a long
straw-like tube that unrolls from the head when the butterfly needs to take either food or
water for its liquid diet.

  • Paper
  • Markers
  • Scissors
  • Straw
  • Orange Juice
  • Cranberry Juice
  • Honey
1) Draw a flower on the piece of paper.
2) Color and cut it out.
3) Poke a straw through the center of your flower.
Recipe for Nectar:
1/2 cup orange juice
1/2 cup cranberry juice
1 tablespoon honey
Mix the juices together, and taste first for sweetness before adding honey. Stir the honey until dissolved. 

Drink some nectar through the straw. Now you are eating like a butterfly!

Orange Slice Butterflies

Orange slice cut into fourths
Chocolate Sprinkles

  1. Put an orange fourth on a toothpick then a grape then another orange fourth.
  2. Put a grape on another toothpick and then slide it through the grape from the previous toothpick and then add on more grape.
  3. Use a chocolate sprinkle for each antenna.
Butterfly Word Search
I found a fun Butterfly Word Search for J to do.  It was a bit difficult for him to do alone, so I helped him a bit.

Butterfly Symmetry
Look closely at a butterfly's wings and you'll see that each is made up of thousands of overlapping scales; it's an example of symmetry in nature.  A line of symmetry divides a shape into two identical parts.  In some cases, as with a butterfly, you'll find one line of symmetry.  In other cases, there is more than one ; like with eight sections of an orange.  Look at butterfly pictures to study the patterns on their wings.  Discuss how the patterns are useful to butterflies (camouflage, alert predators that the butterfly is poison, attract a mate).  Ask students to describe characteristics many butterflies have in common (bright colors, distinctive markings and patterns, wings are the mirror image of each other).

-old newspapers
-round coffee filters
-food coloring
-plastic cup
-pipe cleaner

1. First cover work surfaces with newspapers.
2. Fold the coffee filter in half and then in half again so it is folded into fourths.
3. Using a Q-tip, demonstrate how to dip the Q-tip on the end of the food coloring bottle and squeeze it into the cotton part.  Then dab designs on the folded filter, using different colors and shapes (such as rings, dots, or lines). Then let students get started on their own designs, replicating patterns from a real butterfly or making their own.
4. After the designs are finished, set the folded tip of the filter into a clear cup of water. Have the students observe what happens. Capillary action is occurring, the filter is soaking up water from the cup; as water reaches the colors, they begin to bleed into one another.
5. After a few minutes, when the filter is completely soaked, remove the filters from the water and open them up.  Set them on the newspaper to dry.
6.  Ask the students to describe how the colors changed.  What do they notice about where the patterns appear? The colors soaked through the folds of the filter, creating mirror-image, repeating patterns all around the circle.
7. When the filters are dry, pinch the filters together in the middle, then slide it into the clothespin and spread out the wings.
8. Put a small pieces of pipe cleaner into the front of the clothespin for antennae.
Candy Butterflies
1 paper plate
3 Tbs. vanilla frosting
4 toothpicks
1 candy fruit slices
2 unbroken pretzels
1 gumdrop
2 mini M&Ms
1 large marshmallow
1 two-inch piece red shoelace licorice
paper towels
6 half inch pieces black shoelace licorice

1. Start by showing the children the picture of a butterfly.
2. Review the three main body sections (head, thorax, and abdomen) and their components.
3. Tell the children that everyone is going to build their own butterfly out of candy but they have to make sure not to eat the pieces until everyone is finished.

1. Put the head (gumdrop) on the end of one of the tooth picks.
2. Slide the thorax (large marshmallow) on the tooth pick just below the head.
3. Slide the abdomen (candy fruit slice) behind the thorax.
4. Attach the two wings (pretzels) by pushing the bottom of the pretzel into the topsides of the thorax (large marshmallow).
5. Attach the legs (black shoelace licorice) by pushing them into the bottom sides of the thorax.
6. Insert two antennae (toothpicks) close together into the very top of the head.
7. Take the proboscis (red shoelace licorice) and coil it.
8. Stick the end of the proboscis into the bottom front of the head.
9. Dip the eyes (mini M&Ms) in the frosting and attach them to the head right beside the antennae.

Label a Butterfly
We used the Label a Butterfly page for review.  I used page 12 of the Butterflies Anatomy page to help with us with the review.

Butterflies Day 2 -Caterpillar Anatomy

Caterpillar Anatomy
1. Discuss: Butterflies do all of their growing during the larva stage (caterpillar).  Like all insects they have three distinct body parts (head, thorax, and abdomen).  The head has a pair of short antennae, mouth parts (upper lip, mandibles, and lower lip), and six pairs of simple eyes, called ocelli, that can detect light and dark. Even with all of these eyes, the caterpillar's vision is poor. Each body section has a pair of jointed, called true legs, while some of the abdominal segments have false legs, called prolegs. The body has tiny holes that the caterpillar uses to breath called spiracles. The caterpillar also has tiny hairs along his body that sense touch called setae

2. Read: Creepy, Crawly Caterpillars by Margery Facklam
3. Comprehension questions:
  • What are the 3 body parts of a caterpillar (and all insects)? Head, Thorax, Abdomen
  • What are the stumpy false legs called? Prolegs
  • What is the jaw located on the head called? Mandibles
  • What are the tiny hairs along his body that sense touch? Setae
  • What are the simple eye organs that can detect light and dark? Ocelli
  • What are tiny holes that the caterpillar uses to breath? Spircles
Caterpillar Math Game
I found a elementary Caterpillar Math Game that J liked to play.  You just need to get a file folder and tape in copies of the number caterpillar.  I colored mine to make it look more fun.  
Then you just cut out different addition and subtraction facts for your child to match up with the correct numbers on the caterpillar board.  I also laminated the folder and all the pieces.

Edible Caterpillar Cocoons
1- 8 oz. tube refrigerated crescent rolls
4 hotdogs
1 ketchup

Preheat oven according to directions on the crescent-roll package. Separate the crescent-roll dough into its pre-cut triangle pieces, and lay them flat. 
Cut the hot dogs in half and place one half hotdog on each crescent-roll. Roll and bake on a cookie sheet according to package instructions. Dip in ketchup and enjoy.
What a fun lunch for the kids, and for dessert I had made caterpillar cupcakes for them.
Label the Caterpillar Parts
We did the Label the Caterpillar Parts diagram to review what we had learned today.  I used the diagram in the front of Creepy, Crawly Caterpillars by Margery Facklam and the Caterpillar Anatomy page to help with the review.

Egg Carton Spelling
  • Egg cartons
  • Green, purple, yellow, white paint
  • Paintbrush
  • Google eyes
  • Pipe Cleaners
  1. Cut the bottoms off of a couple of empty egg cartons.
  2. Paint them green, purple, and yellow. 
  3. After they dry, turn the green ones into heads, with goggle eyes and pipe cleaner antennae.
  4. Paint letter on top of the yellows (two sets of vowels), and purples (only one set of consonants.) 
  5. After those dry, you can practice your alphabet, and simple spelling skills.
  6. We used them to review our spelling words for the week.

    Caterpillar Poem

    Fuzzy, wuzzy, creepy crawly
    Caterpillar funny 
    You will be a butterfly
    When the days are sunny.
    Wiggling, flinging, dancing, springing 
    Butterfly so yellow, 
    You were once a caterpillar,
    Wriggly, wiggly, fellow.
    by Lillian Vabada
    Read the poem and write down all rhyming words from the poem below.


Butterflies Day 1 -Life Cycle

Butterfly & Moth Life Cycle
1. Discuss: Ask the children “How do butterflies and moths grow? Do they start out as little babies like us or from eggs like snakes, frogs, turtles, and birds?” Because butterflies and moths are insects they start as an egg. When the egg hatches the butterfly or moth is called a caterpillar or larva. Caterpillars spend most of their time feeding on plants and grow very quickly. A caterpillar grows into a pupa. A butterfly pupa is called a chrysalis and a moth pupa is a cocoon. What do you think happens to the pupa inside a chrysalis or cocoon? The pupa is turning into a butterfly or a moth. This process of change from caterpillar to butterfly or moth is called metamorphosis. Have the children repeat the word “metamorphosis.” During the pupa stage the transformation from larva to adult is completed. Butterflies make a chrysalis to protect them as pupae. Many butterfly pupae are well-camouflaged, since they can't escape from predators by flying away. Just before the butterfly emerges, you can see their wing patterns through the pupa covering. The pupa stage usually last ten to fourteen days.

2. Read: Caterpillar to Butterfly by Camilla de la Bedoyere

3. Review: Review the butterfly life cycle with hand motions. What is the first stage in a butterfly’s metamorphosis? An egg (hand clutched tight in a fist). What is the second stage of a butterfly’s metamorphosis? A caterpillar (index finger extended, scrunched, extended, scrunched). What is the third stage of a butterfly’s metamorphosis? A chrysalis (index finger wrapped by other hand-like a hotdog). What is the last stage of a butterfly’s metamorphosis? A butterfly (thumbs interlocked, fingers wiggling and making a flying motion).

4. Comprehension questions: What are the 4 stages of butterfly or moth metamorphosis? Egg, larva (caterpillar), pupa (chrysalis or cocoon), adult (butterfly or moth)
Butterfly Life Cycle Craft
  • Clothespin
  • Small pom-poms
  • Google eyes
  • Pipe cleaner
  • Glue
  • Toilet paper tube
  • Green tissue paper
  • Another color tissue paper
  • Tape
1. Glue pompoms to clothespins with google eyes, and a piece of bent pipe cleaner for the antennae. 
2. Make the chrysalis by gluing green tissue paper squares onto toilet paper rolls. When they are completely covered and dry, staple one end closed. 
3. Make wings for the butterflies by pinching rectangles of tissue paper, and taping them in the middle, to fit in the center of the clothes pins. 
4. With the addition of a tiny pompom "egg", you can discuss the butterfly life cycle.
5. Fold the wings up, and stuff them into the toilet paper rolls with the tape end up.
You can act out how the butterfly wraps itself in the chrysalis shell, and then emerges, after a few weeks, with it's wings crumpled, and wet. To sun itself, and gradually dry, and straighten out it's wings, ready to fly. 

Life Cycle Metamorphosis Activity
-Drawing Paper

1.  Fold a piece of paper in half.
2.  Draw a kidney bean shaped figure along the folded half.
3.  Cut out the figure.
4. Unfold the figure, draw, and color a butterfly on one side of the paper.
5.  Fold the paper in half again with the blank sides facing out.  Draw and color a caterpillar on one side.
6.  Flip the folded paper over to the other blank side.  Draw and color a chrysalis on this side.

Label a Life Cycle
I used the Label a Life Cycle form to review the stages of metamorphosis.  We also used page 33 of Butterflies and Moths to help with the review.

adult - the winged adult will lay the eggs. Adults do not eat, they only sip liquids through a straw-like proboscis.
larva - also called the caterpillar hatches from the egg. The larva spends its time eating, growing and molting (shedding its outgrown exoskeleton).
pupa - the stage in a butterfly's life when it is encased in a chrysalis and undergoes metamorphosis into the adult.
egg - the tiny orb laid by a female butterfly. Eggs are usually laid on the underside of leaves - they hatch into larvae.

Butterfly Life Cycle Picture Wheel
  • Bowl with about 8 inch diameter
  • 2 pieces of cardstock
  • Pencil
  • Scissors
  • Crayons or markers
  • Glue stick
  • Copy of butterfly life cycle pictures
  • Paper fastener
  1. Place the bowl upside on the cardstock and trace a circle around it. Do this to both pieces of the cardstock. Add a little handle to the wheel. Cut out both pieces.
  2. Cut a triangle out of one wheel with the tip of the triangle almost to the center of the wheel as pictured.
  3. Color the life cycle pictures and then cut them out.
  4. Have the children sequence the pictures in the correct order to help with the next step.
  5. Glue the pictures in order around the whole wheel.
  6. Punch a whole in the center of the 2 wheels and place the one with the triangle cut out on the top.
  7. Connect the wheels with a paper fastener.
Butterfly Story
I found this Butterfly Story page to color and practice some writing.