March 28, 2012

Christopher Columbus Day 7

1. Review:  read "The Second Voyage" on page 27 and "A Voyage Over and Another Begun" on page 29 of Hands on History Christopher Columbus by Mary Tucker.

2. Read: pages 52-end of the book Columbus by Ingri and Edgar Parin D'Aulaire.

3. Discuss: An eclipse is the total or partial covering of the sun or moon by another planet, sun or moon. A solar eclipse occurs when the moon passes between the sun and the earth so you can't see the sun for a short time; a lunar eclipse when the earth passes between the sun and the moon so you can't see the moon for a short time.
4. Comprehension Questions:
  • How did Columbus get the Indians to start bringing them food again? He told them that God was angry with them and was going to take away the moon, when really it was just an eclipse.
  • How long were Columbus and his men shipwrecked in Jamaica? A year
  • Columbus spent the rest of his life in Spain. Was he happy that he found a New Land or sad that he never found his way all the way around the earth to the East (Asia)? Disappointed that he never found the East
5. Map Skills: review with a globe the places that Columbus had come across in his journeys.
  • Genoa, Italy
  • Portugal
  • Spain
  • San Salvador, The Bahamas
  • Spain
  • Haiti
  • Spain
  • Orinoco River, South America
  • Spain
  • Jamaica
  • Spain
Columbus Word Jumble
We used the Columbus Word Jumble to review some of the new words that we learned about in this unit study.

Columbus Poem
Read the poem "In 1492 Columbus Sailed the Ocean Blue" or the book In 1492 by Jean Marzollo.
Columbus Poem
In 1492 Columbus Sailed the Ocean Blue
In fourteen hundred ninety-two
Columbus sailed the ocean blue.
He had three ships and left from Spain;
He sailed through sunshine, wind and rain.
He sailed by night; he sailed by day;
He used the stars to find his way.
A compass also helped him know
How to find the way to go.
Ninety sailors were on board;
Some men worked while others snored.
Then the workers went to sleep;
And others watched the ocean deep.
Day after day they looked for land;
They dreamed of trees and rocks and sand.
October 12 their dream came true,
You never saw a happier crew!
"Indians! Indians!" Columbus cried;
His heart was filled with joyful pride.
But "India" the land was not;
It was the Bahamas, and it was hot.
The Arakawa natives were very nice;
They gave the sailors food and spice.
Columbus sailed on to find some gold
To bring back home, as he'd been told.
He made the trip again and again,
Trading gold to bring to Spain.
The first American? No, not quite.
But Columbus was brave, and he was bright.

Columbus Word Search 
We used this Columbus Word Search as a fun way to review a few more words that we learned for this unit study.  Ask student what each of the words means after he finds them in the word search.
Columbus Word Search

Christopher Columbus Day 6

1. Review: read "Shipwreck!" on page 20 and "Honored in Spain" on page 24 of Hands on History Christopher Columbus by Mary Tucker.

2. Read: pages 44-51 in Columbus by Ingri and Edgar Parin D'Aulaire.

3. Map Skills: Columbus made several trips and never landed at the same place. When traveling a far distance over water they weren't very accurate in landing on the same island with their old time navigation. Also the wind and storms that they would encounter were in the Atlantic were different for each trip and would cause them to be further South than they thought. Show on the map where they landed for each trip:
  • 1st trip Bahamas
  • 2nd trip Haiti
  • 3rd trip South America (Orinoco River)
  • 4th trip Jamaica
4. Comprehension Questions:
  • On Columbus's second voyage across the Atlantic he sailed to the wrong Island inhabited by wild Indian's, when they finally found Hispaniola (Haiti) what had happened to the fortress and Spaniards left behind? The Indians had destroyed the fortress and killed the Spaniards
  • Were the new sailors kind to the Indians? No, they made them their slaves.
  • On Columbus's third voyage across the Atlantic he tried to go around the islands to reach Asia, but ran into another continent. What Continent was it? South America
  • Did Columbus finally reach Asia on his fourth voyage across the Atlantic? No
  • Columbus's 3 very old ships finally wrecked in Jamaica and the sailors ran out of food. They were still over 100 miles away from Hispaniola (Haiti), who brought them food for a while? Friendly Indians
5. Discuss: read "Loading Up" on page 27 of Hands on History Christopher Columbus by Mary Tucker.  Talk with the child about what the would bring if they were traveling with Columbus.  Talk about things for now versus things that will last for a long time (hamburger vs. seeds).

New World Map


  • Brown paper grocery bag
  • Pencil
  • Scissors
  • Water color paints: blue, brown, green
  • White craft paint
  • Paintbrush
  • Black marker
  • Lighter (optional: for parents only!)


  1. Cut a rectangle from the side of the grocery bag that does not have seams.
  2. Use a pencil to draw simple land designs on the front of your bag (refer to a world map for a general idea).
  3. Paint the land on the right green (Spain, Africa, etc...) and the land on the left brown (the Americas).
  4. Paint the remaining areas (water) blue, leaving a small border around the land unpainted. Let paint dry. 

  5. When dry, use a black marker to add an outline to the land masses.
  6. Write the words “New World” on the land mass in the upper left and “Spain” on the upper right land mass.
  7. Use the marker to draw tiny curved lines around the water to represent waves.
  8. Draw a dotted line from “Spain” to the lower left land mass.
  9. Draw three small ships above the dotted line.
  10. Add another coat of green and brown watercolor paint to the land masses.
  11. Use a small paintbrush and white acrylic paint to paint the sails of the ships, and an upper and lower line around the dotted voyage line and thin white curves above the wave curves.
  12. When white paint is dry, outline the ship sails with a black marker.
  13. This step is optional and should ONLY be done by a grown up or parent: Use a lighter to lightly burn the edges of the brown paper map to give it an aged look.
New World Map
Plus or Minus?
Discuss: Talk about the new things that the Spanish sailors found.  Things they had probably never seen before.  Talk about what new things the students would like and what things they wouldn't like.  We used "Plus of Minus?" on page 28 of Hands on History Christopher Columbus by Mary Tucker.
Columbus Vocabulary
Use the Columbus Day Vocabulary page to put the words in alphabetical order.  Then use the dictionary to write a short definition next to each word.

Christopher Columbus Day 5

1. Review: read "A New World" on page 17 of Hands on History Christopher Columbus by Mary Tucker. 

2. Read: pages 38-43 in Columbus by Ingri and Edgar Parin D'Aulaire.

3. Map skills: Columbus sailed from San Salvador on to Cuba and then to Haiti. Find Cuba and Haiti on a map. What type of landform are Cuba and Haiti? mountain

4. Comprehension questions:
  • Can you remember which ship crashed? Santa Maria
  • What did the Indians call Columbus and his men? White Gods
  • Where did they finally find gold? Haiti
  • What ship did Columbus ride on back to Spain? The Nina
  • What were some of the things that Columbus brought home with him to show the King and Queen? Parrots, strange fruits, sweet-smelling herbs, small chest of gold ornaments, and some Indians
  • Was Columbus a hero now? Yes
5. Discuss: When Columbus returned from his voyage he met with the King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella, the king and queen gave Columbus the right to have his own coat of arms.  A coat of arms is the official symbols of a family, state, etc.  A coat of arms is a form of identification that goes back to before Roman times.  Back then the coat of arms was used to identify groups of fighting men within the Roman legion.  In the Middle Ages the coat of arms was used to identify each noble family.  Each item chosen to be in the design had a meaning.  After a family decided on a coat of arms the design was placed on shields, embroidered on tapestries, and carved in stone throughout the house.  It was also placed on swords and banners, and on special occasions the design was burnt into the top of breads.  The coat of arms that Columbus was assigned had a castle and a lion on it.  A few years later he added the island and anchors as a reminder of his adventures.
Columbus' Coat of Arms
Discuss: What the children would want on their coat of arms, the symbols should be reminders of significant events in their lives or of personal characteristics (sports, music, art, lion= courage, lamb= peace).  We used "Columbus' Coat of Arms" on page 25 of Hands on History Christopher Columbus by Mary Tucker. 
Coat of Arms
Sailing, Sailing
Review: What it would be like to sail on a ship for 2 months and why Columbus took a ship on his voyage rather that an automobile or airplane.  We used the Sailing, Sailing color page to review this.

Mountain Cake 
1. Columbus was looking for gold on the islands. The Indians told him there was gold in the mountains on Haiti. Mountains are another type of landform.

Define mountain-
Mountain: a high, raised part of the earth's surface, higher than a hill

2. Make a mountain of your own mountain cake.

Supplies: square cake (baking) pan, 1 glass oven-safe mixing bowl, 1 box cake mix, green frosting, chocolate frosting, oreo cookies, and whipped cream.

  • Make cake mix according to the recipe. Pour into your square pan until it is half full and use the rest in a glass mixing bowl. 
  • Bake according to recipe's directions. Test with toothpick.
  • Once cooled flip the cake in your glass mixing bowl on to your square cake.
  • Frost the square portion of your cake with green frosting. 
  • Frost the mountain part with chocolate frosting. 
  • Crush up Oreo cookies to crumble on your mountain. For a snowcapped effect you could top your mountain with whipped cream. 
    Mountain Cake

March 27, 2012

Christopher Columbus Day 4

1. Review: read "King Ferdinand & Queen Isabella" and "Getting Ready" on page 12 and "Trouble on Board" on page 15 of Hands on History Christopher Columbus by Mary Tucker.

2. Read: pages 31-37 in Columbus by Ingri and Edgar Parin D'Aulaire.

3. Map Skills: On October 12 (Columbus Day), 1492 Columbus and his crew finally find land. They didn't find Chinese people like they thought they would. He called the people Indians because he thought they must be in India. He named the island San Salvador. Find San Salvador on a map (hint: it's part of the Bahamas). Find India and China on a map. Is San Salvador close to India or China. (no)

4. Comprehension questions:
  • How did the Pinta signal to the other ships that they have spotted land? Fired a cannon shot
  • What was the date when Columbus first spotted the New Land? October 12, 1492
  • How long did Columbus travel the ocean before they found land? Over 2 months
  • What are the first 2 things that Columbus did when he stepped on the land? Put the Spanish flag in the ground and thanked God
  • Columbus thought they had landed in India so what did he call the natives? Indians
  • What did Columbus name the island that they landed on? San Salvador
  • Did Columbus and his men find the gold and treasures that they hoped to find? No, just the nose rings that the Indian's wore.
5. Discuss:  In Columbus' journal he wrote that the Indians would make good servants.  Why did he feel like he was superior (better than) to the Indians?  Even though he felt this way Columbus told his crew to treat the Indians fairly, but they were trading things that were worth only pennies for things that were worth more.  What that fair treatment?  Why?
Read "The Search Goes On" on page 18 of Hands on History Christopher Columbus by Mary Tucker.  How do you think the crew felt when there was no gold for them to find?  What are some of the things that they did find?

Columbus' Discoveries
Review what Columbus wanted to find on his voyage across the ocean.  Then talk about what he actually did find.  We used "Columbus Discoveries" on page 19 of Hands on History Christopher Columbus by Mary Tucker.

A Ship To Sail
We made a ship with "A Ship to Sail" on page 13 of Hands on History Christopher Columbus by Mary Tucker.  We copied the ship onto cardstock and colored it.  
Next we folded it in half and glued styrofoam to the bottom of it.  We were then able to float it in the water.

A Ship To Sail
Columbus Maze
We had a simple Columbus Maze to help Columbus reach the island.  At the bottom of the page it reviews the year that Columbus discovered the New World.

Island Snow Globe
1. San Salvador is an island. An island is another type of landform.
Define island-
Island: a body of land completely surrounded by water.

2.Island Snow Globe
Supplies: Sculpey modeling clay, baby food jar, and glitter
  • Build a mound of clay onto the lid of the jar. Twist the lid in place to make sure it fits properly before making your island.
  • Design your island as desired. J tried to make his island with a tree on it.
  • Bake the lid of your jar with your modeled island according to the instructions.
  • Once thoroughly cooled add water and glitter to your jar, place the lid on the jar and close tightly.

    We added some blue food coloring to it to make it look like water, but then it was harder to see the island so I wouldn't recommend it.

Christopher Columbus Day 3

1. Review: read “At Home in Portugal” on page 9 and “Off to Spain” on page 10 of Hands on History Christopher Columbus by Mary Tucker.

2. Read: pages 22-30 in Columbus by Ingri and Edgar Parin D'Aulaire.

3. Comprehension questions:
  • Columbus left the port of Palos, Spain on August 3, 1492. He took three ships. Can you remember the names of the ships? (Nina, Pinta, and Santa Maria) Which ship was the smallest? (the Nina) Which ship was the largest? (the Santa Maria) Which ship was the fastest? (the Pinta)
  • What did Columbus and his sailors hope to find? Gold and riches
  • Who did Christopher's son stay with? The monks
  • What ship did Columbus ride on? The Santa Maria
  • What direction did they sail? West
  • Columbus's sailors wanted to turn around and sail back to Spain, what did they threaten to do to Columbus? Throw him overboard
  • Why did Columbus finally change the direction that they were traveling to the Southwest? To follow the flock of birds
4. Map Skills: How did Columbus navigate on the Ocean?
Columbus kept a logbook (journal) of where he thought they were. He kept track by checking his maps, following his compass, and watching the stars. He used dead reckoning to get where he wanted to go.  Dead reckoning was a system of using a compass and the North Star to keep on course.
Define- Navigation is the art of getting from one place to another, safely and efficiently. 
Maps- In Columbus' time they had not yet developed a way to measure distances at sea, also they hadn't come up with a way to portray the round earth on a flat map.  This made the maps of the time very inaccurate.  The size of each land mass on the maps were more of a reflection of their importance for trade routes than actual geographical size.  The charts and maps had a compass rose indication bearing between trading ports.
Compass- Early mariners found the compass inconsistent; probably because they didn't understand variation (a compass points to the magnetic north pole, not true north).  They could not explain the variations and couldn't put much trust in the compass readings when navigation unknown sea.  Columbus' compass was checked against the North Star or pole star.

Sun and stars- Navigators of the time could determine latitude (north/south direction) by observing the height of the sun during the day and the North Star at night.  Ships could follow the east/west movement of the sun to determine the direction the wished to travel.  However, the navigators had no way to accurately determine longitude.  Once the ship was out of sight of land they had no idea how far east/west they were.  They made estimates based on the time it took them to get there.

5. Discuss: read “They're Off!” on page 14 of Hands on History Christopher Columbus by Mary Tucker. Have the students find the Canary Islands on a world map. Have them note how far Columbus had gone in 3 weeks and how much farther he had to go.

Compass Calculations
Go outside and explain how a compass works. Think and talk about how a compass could have helped Christopher Columbus. What direction was he going? Since a compass always points north, how did it keep Columbus headed in the right direction?

Give students various directions to follow such as: take 8 steps north, then 5 steps west, then 10 steps south and see where you end up?

Ask them which direction they need to go to get to the car? Or back to the house? Or to the trampoline? Students use the compass to figure out the directions they should go.

Measuring Columbus' Ships
Measuring Columbus' Ships
1. Discuss the size of the 3 ships:
Christopher Columbus' fleet consisted of three vessels obtained in a tiny Spanish coastal port. The Pinta and Nina were caravels: boats that were longer for a given width to give them a streamlined configuration. The Pinta was three-masted with square-rigged sails; the Nina, though the smallest, had four masts and was lateen-rigged (triangular sails).

Santa Maria:
Class and type: Nao
Tons burthen: 108 tons (119 short tons)
Length: Est. at 17.7 m (58 ft) on deck, and about (22 m) 72 ft length over all.
Beam (width): 5.85 (19.2 ft)
Draught: 2.92 m (9.6 ft)
Complement: 40 men*

Class and type: Caravel
Tons burthen: 60 - 70 tons
Length: 17 m (56 ft) on deck
Beam (width): 5.36 m (17.6 ft)
Draught: 2.31 m (7.6 ft)
Complement: 26 men

Class and type: Caravel
Tons burthen: 50 - 60 tons
Length: 15.24 m (50 ft) on deck
Beam (width): 4.85 m (15.9 ft)
Draught: 2.07 m (6.8 ft)
Complement: 24 men

  • 3 pieces of white construction paper
  • Marker
  • tape
  • ball of yarn
  • 9 long sticks (2ft-5ft)
  • tape measure or yard stick (something to measure with)
  • Cut each piece of white paper into a large triangle flag, write the name of each ship on one, and tape them to the top of the 3 largest sticks.
  • Start at a tree and measure out the length of the largest ship first (Santa Maria length over all) and put the flag stick in the ground (you can soften the ground with a cup of water). 
  • Then go the the middle of that measurement and measure the width, putting a stick in the ground at each end of the width.
  • Tie the yarn to the tree and run it along the outside of the 3 sticks in the ground to form a kind of outline of the ships deck.
  • Repeat with the Pinta and then the Nina.
  • If you have 24 in your class you can have them all stand in the Nina outline and ask them if they feel crowded? Would they like to eat, sleep, and work in that space for over 2 months?
    Measuring Columbus' Ships
This demonstration can be done with just the Santa Maria if you don't have the time to do all of the ships.

Ships In A Bottle
We used a 2 liter soda bottle for this activity. We printed out the Ships In A Bottle on cardstock.  Next we cut the end of the bottle off and taped the ships in where we wanted them.  Then we put int blue shredded paper for the water.  
I taped the bottle back together with clear packing tape so you could still see the ships through the bottle.
Ships In A Bottle
Eating Like Sailors
For snack food, have something that the sailors might have eaten on Columbus's voyage such as; dried fruit, cheese, honey, almonds, etc... Eat snacks on the floor using their hands to eat with (like the sailors)

Make hardtack (sea biscuits):
6 parts flour
1 part water

Knead dough until thoroughly mixed. Roll out on a floured surface until about 1/8 inch thick (or there abouts). Cut into squares about 3 by 3 inches.

Pierce the hard tack 12 times with the tip of a knife, making sure hole goes all the way through the dough.

Bake at 325 for at least an hour, turning over the hard tack once. Check to see that it is cooked through completely. Take out & let cool overnight to get that real hard & dry feeling. 

Columbus and Crew Viewpoints
Help your students understand the different viewpoints of Columbus and his crew.  Teacher reads Columbus and students read the crew.  Encourage them to read their parts with feelings.   For this activity we used “Columbus and Crew Rap” on page 16 of Hands on History Christopher Columbus by Mary Tucker.
Sailors Journal
Columbus recorded the date and how many miles he traveled in his logbook. The crew on his ship were hungry, scared, and ready to go home. Pretend you are a member of Columbus's crew. Write a journal entry describing what you have seen and how you are feeling.
Sailors Journal

March 24, 2012

Christopher Columbus Day 2

1. Review: read “A Boy Named Christopher” on page 6 and “A Sea Battle” on page 8 of Hands on History Christopher Columbus by Mary Tucker.
2. Read: pages 13-21 in Columbus by Ingri and Edgar Parin D'Aulaire.
3. Map Skills: We have read about several places so far. Can you name some of them? Find Spain, Asia, and Portugal on the map. What ocean was Christopher in when he got to Portugal? Atlantic Ocean Back then it was called the great Western Ocean.
4. Comprehension questions:
  • What country did Columbus first sail for? Portugal
  • Did the Portuguese believe the earth was flat or round? Round
  • Had anyone ever sailed far into the Atlantic Ocean yet? No
  • What country did Columbus think he would come to if he sailed across the Atlantic Ocean? Asia (Point on the globe with your finger and make line from Portugal going west to Asia saying that Columbus thought all the land would be the Atlantic Ocean)
  • The King of Portugal wouldn't support Columbus' journey, so what country did Columbus go and ask the King and Queen for help? Spain
  • Who did Christopher and his son have to stay with for a while? The monks at the little cloister (monastary)
5. Discuss: read “Explorers Exploring” on page 7 of Hands on History Christopher Columbus by Mary Tucker. Have students find China on map. Then have him find Africa. Ask students if they think going around Africa would have been the best way to get to the East from Portugal? Were there any other possible ways to get there?

Read “It's a Small, Small World” on page 10 of Hands on History Christopher Columbus by Mary Tucker. Show on the globe how they thought the world was (but covering the Americas with your hand) and saying that they thought it was all ocean.

Columbus' Letter to the King and Queen of Spain
Discuss:  What country did Columbus first sail for? (Portugal) Columbus believed he could sail across the Atlantic Ocean to Asia, but he needed ships and men to do it. He requested the help of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain. Let's pretend you are Columbus writing a letter to the king and queen requesting their help. Include what supplies you would need (food, water, ships, etc.) and three reasons why they should help you.
Columbus' Letter
Egg Cup Ships


  • 3 cardboard egg cups

  • Brown acrylic craft paint
  • Paintbrush
  • ¼ cup modeling clay or play dough
  • 6 toothpicks
  • 1 sheet white paper
  • Scissors
  • White craft glue


  1. Paint the 3 egg cups inside and out with brown paint and set aside to dry.
  2. Cut sails from white paper. You will need 6 large sails (1.5” x 1”) and 18 small sails (.5” x .75”).
  3. Set aside three of the toothpicks for the large sails. Break or cut the other three toothpicks in half, so that you have 6 halves.
  4. Put a line of glue through the middle of one of the small sails. Place the cut or broken end of one of the toothpick halves onto the glue line.
  5. Roll it in the glue to cover both sides, then place another sail on top, sandwiching the two sails together. Flatten the sails together with your fingers and set aside to dry.
  6. Repeat step number 5 with each toothpick half and 2 small sails (each).
  7. Following the guide in step number 5, make the larger sails. For each large sail you will need a toothpick, 2 small sails and 2 large sails. Glue the small sail to the end of the full toothpick, and then glue the larger sail beneath it, leaving a small gap between the top and bottom sail. Then set those aside to dry too. 
  8. Roll a small amount of clay in your palm, enough to line the bottom of the egg cup. Place in the egg cup and flatten to cover bottom.
  9. Put one large sail and 2 small sails into the clay, one small sail on either side of the large sail.
Egg Cup Ships
Making a Map
Discuss: The people of Columbus' time thought that they could sail west around the world to get to the Indies.  They didn't know about the 2 big continents that were in there way.  Draw a map to show what was really across the ocean between Europe and China?

Materials:  I used “Making a Map” on page 11 of Hands on History Christopher Columbus by Mary Tucker.

Christopher Columbus Day 1

1. Read: pages 4-13 in Columbus by Ingri and Edgar Parin D'Aulaire.
2. Map Skills: Have the students find Italy on a world map or globe, then the city of Genoa. Ask them what sea Christopher Columbus would have sailed on as a boy? Ligurian Sea What bigger sea did this lead to? Mediterranean Sea
3. Review: what we have learned about Columbus so far.
  • Columbus was born in Genoa, Italy
  • He lived over 500 years ago
  • He believed the world was round while others believed it was flat
  • He left his father's house at age 13 to become a sailor
4. Comprehension questions:
  • Where was Christopher Columbus born? Genoa, Italy
  • What did others believe would happen if they went out to far in the ocean? They would fall off the earth
  • What did Columbus believe about the world? It was round
  • What did the boy Christopher hold and look at to help him understand that they earth was round? An orange and a butterfly
  • How did he help his father with his business? Sailed up and down the Genoese coast and delivered the things that he father had woven
  • How old was he when he left his family to be a sailor? 13
  • Who attacked and sunk Columbus's ship? A fleet of pirates
5. Discuss:
  • Have you ever ridden in a boat, was it fun?
  • What kinds of boats can people travel in today? Canoe, raft, kayak, rowboat, motorboat, sailboat, paddleboat, tugboat, submarine, cruise ship, etc...
  • Discuss what the purpose is of each kind of boat and how do they move across the water?
  • Which boat would you like to travel in and why?
  • Where would you go?
  • Who would you take with you?
  • Would you work on the boat or just enjoy the ride and let someone else to all the work?
  • How long would you want to be gone?
Orange Jello Boats
1.  Just cut an orange in half
2.  Scoop out everything inside making sure not to break the rind
3.  Pour in jello refrigerated it
4.  Once it is set, cut it in half again 
5.  Add the sail with a toothpick and small paper
Orange Jello Boats

Sailing Song
Have the children sing this song a few times doing the actions, pretending to be Christopher Columbus.
To the tune of “My Bonnie Lies over the Ocean”

I wonder what's over the ocean.
 ~Lean forward to the left as you shade eyes with hand and look far away.
I wonder what's over the sea.
 ~Lean forward to the right as you shade eyes with hand and look far away.
Someday I'll sail over the ocean
 ~Move hand in wavey motion.
That will be an adventure for me!
 ~Jump up and raise hands over head.
Sailing, sailing,
 ~Move hand in wavey motion.
In a ship over the sea, the sea.
 ~Point forward.
Sailing, sailing,
 ~Move hand in wavey motion.
That will be an adventure for me!
 ~Jump up and raise hands over head.

Landform Peninsula
1. Discuss Italy:
Columbus is from Italy.  Do you remember where Italy is on the map? What is Italy shaped like? a boot  Italy is surrounded by water on 3 sides, that makes Italy a peninsula.

2. Define Peninsula:
Peninsula: A peninsula is a body of land that is surrounded by water on three sides.  A peninsula is a type of landform.
Define Landform:
Landform:  A description of the Earth's shape and origin.  As we continue to learn about Columbus we will discuss other types of landforms.

3. Directions:
Supplies: flour, salt, water, poster board and paint
  • Make an outline of Italy on poster boards. Make sure to include the surrounding water.
  • Mix 2 parts flour, 1 part salt, and 1 part water into a dough.
  • Shape dough to form your map. 
  • Place dough on aluminum pan and bake at 300° for 1 hour.
  • Allow to cool.
  • Paint your salt map now that it is cooled.
  • While painting your map review the terms peninsula and landforms.

Landform Peninsula